Showing posts with label POLITY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label POLITY. Show all posts

Thursday, August 10, 2017


1. Consider the following tasks:
1. Superintendence, direction and conduct of free and fair elections
2. Preparation of electoral rolls for all elections to the Parliament, State Legislatures and the Office of the President and the Vice-President.
3. Giving recognition to political parties and allotting election symbols to political parties and individuals contesting the election
4. Proclamation of final verdict in the case of election disputes.
Which of the above are the functions of the Election Commission of India?
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 2, 3 and 4
c) 1 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 4

2. The "Instrument of Instructions" contained in the Government of India Act 1935 have been incorporated in the Constitution of India in the year 1950 as:
a) Fundamental Rights
b) Directive Principles of State Policy
c) Extent of executive power of State
d) Conduct of business of the Government of India

3. In India, if a religious sect/community is given the status of a national minority, what special advantages it is entitled to?
1. It can establish and administer exclusive educational institutions.
2. The President of India automatically nominates a representative of the community to LokSabha.
3. It can derive benefits from the Prime Minister's 15-Point Programme.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 and 3 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3

4. India is home to lakhs of persons with disabilities. What are the benefits available to them under the law?
1. Free schooling till the age of 18 years in government-run schools.
2. Preferential allotment of land for setting up business.
3. Ramps in public buildings.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 3

5. Consider the following statements: In India, a Metropolitan Planning Committee:
1. Is constituted under the provisions of the Constitution of India.
2. Prepares the draft development plans for metropolitan area.
3. Has the sole responsibility for implementing Government sponsored schemes in the metropolitan area.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 3

6. In the areas covered under the Panchayat (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, what is the role/power of Gram Sabha?
1. Gram Sabha has the power to prevent alienation of land in the Scheduled Areas.
2. GramSabha has the ownership of minor forest produce.
3. Recommendation of Gram Sabha is required for granting prospecting licence or mining lease for any mineral in the Scheduled Areas.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 3

7. Which of the following is/are the principal feature(s) of the Government of India Act, 1919?
1. Introduction of diarchy in the executive government of the provinces.
2. Introduction of separate communal electorates for Muslims.
3. Devolution of legislative authority by the centre to the provinces.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a) Only 1
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) 1, 2 and 3

8. Which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India have a bearing on Education?
1. Directive Principles of State Policy.
2. Rural and Urban Local Bodies.
3. Fifth Schedule.
4. Sixth Schedule.
5. Seventh Schedule.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 3, 4 and 5
c) 1, 2 and 5
d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

9. With reference to the Delimitation Commission, consider the following statements:
1. The orders of the Delimitation Commission cannot be challenged in a Court of Law.
2. When the orders of the Delimitation Commission are laid before the Lok Sabha or State Legislative Assembly, they cannot effect any modifications in the orders.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) Only 1
b) Only 2
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2

10. consider the following statements:
1. The constitution of India does not define backward classes.
2. Providing for quotas to socially, economically and educationally backward classes is mentioned in the DPSP outside of Part IV of the constitution.
Which of these is/are true?
a) Only 1
b) Only 2
c) Both
d) None

11. Money bill is defined under:
a) Article 109
b) Article 111
c) Article 199
d) None of the above

12. Choose the correct statement regarding the constituent assembly?
1. The Constituent Assembly was a sovereign body.
2. The Constituent Assembly was a legislative body apart from constitution making body.
Pick the correct code:
a) Only 1
b) Only 2
c) Both
d) None

13. Consider the following Indian Religious Communities:
1. Sikhs
2. Buddhists
3. Jains
4. Parsis
Which among the above have been conferred the 'minority' status by the Government of India?
a) 1 and 4
b) 1, 2 and 4
c) 2, 3 and 4
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

14. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse are either implicit or explicit under:
1. Article 19
2. Article 301
a) 1, 2
b) Only 1
c) Only 2
d) None

15. Who can make a law giving, or authorising the giving of, any preference or making, or authorising the making of, any discrimination if it is declared by such law that it is necessary to do
so for the purpose of dealing with a situation arising from scarcity of goods in any part of the territory of India
a) Parliament
b) State legislature
c) Both
d) none

16. Who can impose restrictions on goods imported from other States or the Union territories any tax to which similar goods manufactured or produced in that State are subject, so, however, as not to
discriminate between goods so imported and goods so manufactured or produced; and impose such reasonable restrictions on the freedom of trade, commerce or intercourse with or within that
State as may be required in the public interest:
a) Parliament
b) State legislature
c) Both
d) Neither

17. Who can constitute a interstate trade commission?
a) President
b) Parliament
c) Supreme court
d) Parliament on the request of two or more states

18. Which of the following are considered as the constitutional amendment under article 368?
1. Reorganisation of states
2. Linguistic provisions
3. Salaries of the MPs
a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 2
c) Only 3
d) None

19. Which of the following provisions in the amendment to the constitution shall also require to
be ratified by the Legislature of not less than one half of the States by resolution to that effect
passed by those Legislatures before the Bill making provision for such amendment is presented to the President for assent
1. Article 54 and 55
2. Article 73
3. Article 162
4. Article 241
a) 1, 2, 3, 4
b) 1, 2, 3
c) 2, 3
d) 1, 4

20. In the amendment of which of the following the participation of the states shall also be required?
1. Reorganising the states
2. Seventh schedule
3. Representation of the states in parliament
a) 1, 2, 3
b) 2, 3
c) Only 3
d) None

1-a, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-a, 6-d, 7-c, 8-c, 9-c, 10-a,
11-c, 12-c, 13-d, 14-a, 15-a, 16-b, 17-b, 18-a, 19-a, 20-b

Sunday, August 6, 2017

List of Vice Presidents of India

1.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan1952-195713 May, 1952 – 12 May, 1962
2.Zakir Husain196213 May, 1962 – 12 May, 1967
3.Varahagiri Venkata Giri
13 May, 1967 – 3 May, 1969
4.Gopal Swarup Pathak196931 August, 1969 – 30 August, 1974
5.Basappa Danappa Jatti197431 August, 1974 – 30 August, 1979
6.Mohammad Hidayatullah197931 August, 1979 – 30 August, 1984
7.Ramaswamy Venkataraman198431 August, 1984 – 24 July, 1987
8.Shankar Dayal Sharma19873 September, 1987 – 24 July, 1992
9.Kocheril Raman Narayanan199221 August, 1992 – 24 July, 1997
10.Krishan Kant199721 August, 1997 – 27 July, 2002
11.Bhairon Singh Shekhawat200219 August, 2002 – 21 July, 2007
12.Mohammad Hamid Ansari2007 – 201711 August, 2007 – 10 August, 2017
13.Venkaiah Naidu201711 August, 2007 – Incumbent

Sunday, July 23, 2017

List of All the Presidents of India

1.Rajendra Prasad1952-195726 January, 1950 – 12 May, 1962
2.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan196213 May, 1962 – 13 May, 1967
3.Zakir Husain196713 May, 1967 – 3 May, 1969
4.Varahagiri Venkata Giri (Acting)3 May, 1969 – 20 July, 1969
5.Mohammad Hidayatullah*20 July, 1969 – 24 August, 1969
6.Varahagiri Venkata Giri1969
24 August 1969 – 24 August, 1974
7.Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed197424 August, 1974 – 11 February, 1977
8.Basappa Danappa Jatti (Acting)11 February, 1977 – 25 July, 1977
9.Neelam Sanjiva Reddy197725 July, 1977 – 25 July, 1982
10.Giani Zail Singh198225 July, 1982 – 25 July, 1987
11.Ramaswamy Venkataraman198725 July, 1987 – 25 July, 1992
12.Shankar Dayal Sharma
25 July, 1992 – 25 July, 1997
13.Kocheril Raman Narayanan199725 July, 1997 – 25 July, 2002
14.A. P. J. Abdul Kalam200225 July, 2002 – 25 July, 2007
15.Pratibha Patil200725 July, 2007 – 25 July, 2012
16.Pranab Mukherjee201225 July, 2012 – 25 July, 2017
17.Ram Nath Kovind201725 July, 2017 – Incumbent

Thursday, July 6, 2017


1. The system of government in India established by the constitution:
1. Parliamentary
2. Federal
3. Quasi federal
a) 1, 2, 3
b) 1, 2
c) 1 Only
d) None

2. Which one of the following is/are feature/s NOT common to both the Indian Federation and the American Federation?
1. A single citizenship
2. Three lists in the Constitution
3. Dual judiciary
4. A federal supreme court to interpret the Constitution
a) 1 & 2
b) 1, 2 & 3
c) All
d) 1 & 3

3. Which of the following statements regarding the Constituent Assembly are true?
1. It was not based on adult franchise
2. It resulted from direct elections
3. It was a multi-party body
4. It worked through several committees
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 4
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

4. Which of the following electoral systems is/are have been adopted for various elections in India?
1. System of direct election on the basis of adult suffrage
2. System of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote
3. List system of proportional representation
4. Cumulative system of indirect elections
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
a) 1 and 2
b) 1 and 3
c) 1, 2 and 3
d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

5. Which of the following determines that the Indian Constitution is federal?
1. A written and rigid Constitution
2. An independent Judiciary
3. Vesting of residuary powers with the Centre
4. Distribution of powers between the Centre and the States
a) 1 & 4
b) 1, 3 & 4
c) Only 4
d) None

6. Which one of the following is not explicitly stated in the Constitution of India but followed as a convention?
a) The Finance Minister is to be a Member of the Lower House
b) The Prime Minister has to resign if he loses majority in the Lower House
c) All the parts of India are to be represented in the Council of Ministers
d) In the event of both the President and the Vice-President demitting office simultaneously before the end of their tenure the Speaker of the Lower House of the Parliament will officiate as the President

7. Which of the following is/are extra- constitutional and extra-legal device(s) for securing cooperation and coordination between the States in India?
1. The National Development Council
2. The Governor's Conference
3. Zonal Councils
4. The Inter-State Council
a) 1 and 2
b) 1, 3 and 4
c) 1, 3 and 4
d) 1,2, 3 and 4

8. Which of the following are matters on which a constitutional amendment is possible only with
the ratification of the legislatures of not less than one-half of the States?
1. Election of the President
2. Representation of States in Parliament
3. Any of the Lists in the 7th Schedule
4. Abolition of the Legislative Council of a State
a) 1, 2 and 3
b) 1, 2 and 4
c) 1, 3 and 4
d) 1,2, 3 and 4

9. Assertion (A): The word 'minority' is not defined in the Constitution of India.
Reason (R): The Minorities Commission is not a constitutional body.
In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct?
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both Aand R are true, but R is not a correct explanation of A
c) A is true, but R is false
d) A is false, but R is true

10. Assertion(A): The reservation of thirty-three percent of seats for women in Parliament and State
legislatures does not require Constitutional amendment.
Reason(R): Political parties contesting elections can allocate thirty-three percent of seats they
contest to women candidates without any Constitutional amendment.
In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct?
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
b) Both Aand R are true, but R is not a correct explanation of A
c) A is true, but R is false
d) A is false, but R is true

11. The Indian parliamentary system is different from the British parliamentary system in that
India has which of the following:
1. Both a real and a nominal executive
2. A system of collective responsibility
3. Bicameral legislature
4. The system of judicial review
a) 1, 2 & 3
b) 2 & 4
c) Only 2
d) Only 4

12. Consider the following statements regarding the National Human Rights Commission of India( NHRC):
1. Its Chairman must be a retired Chief Justice of India
2. It has formations in each state as State Human Rights Commission
3. Its powers are only recommendatory in nature
4. It is mandatory to appoint a woman as a member of the Commission
a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
b) 2 and 4
c) 2 and 3
d) 1 and 3

13. The members of the Constituent Assembly which drafted the Constitution of India were:
a) Nominated by the British Parliament
b) Nominated by the Governor General
c) Elected by the Legislative Assemblies of various provinces
d) Elected by the Indian National Congress and Muslim League

14. Consider the following statements with reference to India:
1. The Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners enjoy equal powers but receive unequal salaries
2. The Chief Election Commissioner is entitled to the same salary as is provided to a judge of the Supreme Court
3. The Chief Election Commissioner shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on like grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court
4. The term of office of the Election Commissioner is five years from the date he assumes his office or till the day he attains the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier:
Which of these statements are correct?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 4
d) 2 and 4

15. Consider the following statements: In the electoral college for Presidential Election in India:
1. The value of the vote of an elected Member of Legislative Assembly equals
2. The value of the vote of an elected Member of Parliament equals
3. There were more than 5000 members in the latest election
Which of these statement is/are correct?
a) 1 and 2
b) Only 2
c) 1 and 3
d) Only 3


1) b, 2) b, 3) c, 4) a, 5) c, 6) b, 7) a, 8) a, 9) b, 10) d, 11) d, 12) d, 13) c, 14) b, 15) b

Friday, March 4, 2016


The Constituent Assembly appointed a number of committees to deal with different tasks of constitution-making. Out of these, eight were major committees and the others were minor committees. 
The names of these committees and their chairmen are given below : 

Major Committees 
1. Union Powers Committee - Jawaharlal Nehru 
2. Union Constitution Committee - Jawaharlal Nehru 
3. Provincial Constitution Committee - Sardar Patel 
4. Drafting Committee - Dr. B.R. Ambedkar 
5. Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities - Sardar Patel. This committee had two sub-committes: 
(a) Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee - J.B. Kripalani 
(b) Minorities Sub-Committee - H.C. Mukherjee 
6. Rules of Procedure Committee - Dr. Rajendra Prasad 
7. States Committee (Committee for Negotiating with States) - Jawaharlal Nehru 
8. Steering Committee - Dr. Rajendra Prasad 

Minor Committees 
1. Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly - G.V. Mavalankar 
2. Order of Business Committee - Dr. K.M. Munshi 
3. House Committee - B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya 
4. Ad-hoc Committee on the National Flag - Dr. Rajendra Prasad 
5. Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution - Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar 
6. Credentials Committee - Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar 
7. Finance and Staff Committee Sinha 
8. Hindi Translation Committee 
9. Urdu Translation Committee 
10. Press Gallery Committee 
11. Committee to Examine the Effect of Indian Independence Act of 1947 
12. Committee on Chief Commissioners' Provinces 
13. Commission on Linguistic Provinces 
14. Expert Committee on Financial Provisions 
15. Ad-hoc Committee on the Supreme Court 

Drafting Committee 
Among all the committees of the Constituent Assembly, the most important committee was the Drafting Committee set up on August 29, 1947. It was this committee that was entrusted with the task of preparing a draft of the new Constitution. It consisted of seven members. 

They were: 
1. Dr B R Ambedkar (Chairman) 
2. N Gopalaswamy Ayyangar 
3. Alladi Krishnaswamy Ayyar 
4. Dr K M Munshi 
5. Syed Mohammad Saadullah 
6. N Madhava Rau (He replaced B L Miner who resigned due to ill-health) 
7. T T Krishnamachari (He replaced D P Khaitan who died in 1948) 
The Drafting Committee, after taking into consideration the proposals of the various committees, prepared the first draft of the Constitution of India, which was published in February 1948. The people of India were given eight months to discuss the draft and propose amendments. In the light of the public comments, criticisms and suggestions, the Drafting Committee prepared a second draft, which was published in October 1948.



Name of the Committee                   Chairman


Committee on the Rules of               Rajendra Prasad

Steering Committee                      Rajendra Prasad

Finance and Staff Committee             Rajendra Prasad

Credential Committee                    Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar

House Committee                         B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya

Order of Business Committee             K.M. Munsi

Ad hoc Committee on the                 Rajendra Prasad
National Flag

Committee on the Functions of           G.V. Mavalankar
the Constituent Assembly

States Committee                        Jawaharlal Nehru

Advisory Committee on                   Vallabhbhai Patel
Fundamental Rights, Minorities
and Tribal and Excluded Areas

Minorities Sub-Committee                H.C. Mookherjee

Fundamental Rights                      J.B. Kripalani

North-East Frontier Tribal Areas        Gopinath Bardoloi
and Assam Exluded & Partially
Excluded Areas Sub-Committee

Excluded and Partially Excluded         A.V. Thakkar
Areas (Other than those in Assam)

Union Powers Committee                  Jawaharlal Nehru

Union Constitution Committee            Jawaharlal Nehru

Drafting Committee                      B.R. Ambedkar

Tuesday, August 11, 2015

Council of States (Rajya Sabha)

The ‘Council of States’ which is also known as Rajya Sabha, a nomenclature that was announced by the chair in the House on the 23rd August, 1954 has its own distinctive features. The origin of the second Chamber can be traced to the Montague-Chelmsford Report of 1918. The Government of India Act, 1919 provided for the creation of a ‘Council of State’ as a second chamber of the then legislature with a restricted franchise which actually came into existence in 1921. The Governor-General was the ex-officio President of the then Council of State. The Government of India Act, 1935, hardly made any changes in its composition.

 The Constituent Assembly, which first met on 9 December 1946, also acted as the Central Legislature till 1950, when it was converted as ‘Provisional Parliament’.  During this period, the Central Legislature which was known as Constituent Assembly (Legislative) and later Provisional Parliament was unicameral till the first elections were held in 1952.
Extensive debate took place in the Constituent Assembly regarding the utility or otherwise of a Second Chamber in Independent India and ultimately, it was decided to have a bicameral legislature for independent India mainly because a federal system was considered to be most feasible form of Government for such a vast country with immense diversities.  A single directly elected House, in fact, was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India.  A second chamber known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore, was created with altogether different composition and method of election from that of the directly elected House of the People.  It was conceived as another Chamber, with smaller membership than the Lok Sabha (House of the People).  It was meant to be the federal chamber i.e., a House elected by the elected members of Assemblies of the States and two Union Territories in which  States were not given equal representation.  Apart from the elected members, provision was also made for the nomination of twelve members to the House by the President.  The minimum age of thirty years was fixed for membership as against twenty-five years for the Lower House.  The element of dignity and prestige was added to the Council of State House by making the Vice-President of India ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha who presides over its sittings.

Constitutional Provisions relating to Rajya Sabha

Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the maximum strength of Rajya Sabha as 250, out of which 12 members are nominated by the President and 238 are representatives of the States and of the two Union Territories.  The present strength of Rajya Sabha, however, is 245, out of which 233 are representatives of the States and Union territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12 are nominated by the President. The members nominated by the President are persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.

Allocation of Seats

The Fourth Schedule to the Constitution provides for allocation of seats to the States and Union Territories in Rajya Sabha.  The allocation of seats is made on the basis of the population of each State.  Consequent on the reorganization of States and formation of new States, the number of elected seats in the Rajya Sabha allotted to States and Union Territories has changed from time to time since 1952. 


Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.  A person to be qualified for the membership of the Rajya Sabha should posses the following qualifications:
  1. he must be a citizen of India and make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution;
  2. he must be not less than 30 years of age;
  3. he must possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
Article 102 of the Constitution lays down that a person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament –
  1. if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State, other than an office declared by Parliament by law not to disqualify its holder;
  2. if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court;
  3. if he is an undischarged insolvent;
  4. if he is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State;
  5. if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by Parliament. 
Explanation- For the purpose of this clause a person shall not be deemed to hold an office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State by reason only that he is a Minister either for the Union or for such State.
Besides, the Tenth Schedule to Constitution provides for disqualification of the members on ground of defection.  As per the provisions of the Tenth Schedule, a member may be disqualified as a member, if he voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party; or if he votes or abstains from voting in the House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs, unless such voting or abstention has been condoned by the political party within fifteen days.  A member elected as an independent candidate shall be disqualified if he joins any political party after his election.
A member nominated to the House by the President, however, is allowed to join a political party if he/she does so within the first six months of taking seat in the House.
A member shall not be disqualified on this account, if he voluntarily leaves the membership of his political party after he is elected Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha.

Process for Election/Nomination

Electoral College:
The representatives of the States and of the Union Territories in the Rajya Sabha are elected by the method of indirect election.  The representatives of each State and two Union territories are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of that State and by the members of the Electoral College for that Union Territory, as the case may be, in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. The Electoral College for the National Capital Territory of Delhi consists of the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of Delhi, and that for Puducherry consists of the elected members of the Puducherry Legislative Assembly.
            Rajya Sabha is a permanent House and is not subject to dissolution.  However, one-third Members of Rajya Sabha retire after every second year.  A member who is elected for a full term serves for a period of six years.  The election held to fill a vacancy arising otherwise than by retirement of a member on the expiration of his term of office is called ‘Bye-election’. A member elected in a bye-election remains member for the remainder of the term of the member who had resigned or died or disqualified to be member of the House under the Tenth Schedule.

Presiding Officers -  Chairman and Deputy Chairman

The Presiding Officers of Rajya Sabha have the responsibility to conduct the proceedings of the House.  The Vice-President of India is ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.  Rajya Sabha also chooses from amongst its members, a Deputy Chairman.  There is also a Panel of Vice-Chairmen in Rajya Sabha, the members of which are nominated by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha.  In the absence of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, a member from the Panel of Vice-Chairmen presides over the proceedings of the House. 


The Secretary-General is appointed by the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and holds rank equivalent to the highest civil servant of the Union.  The Secretary-General works with anonymity and is readily available to the Presiding Officers for rendering advice on parliamentary matters. The Secretary-General is also the administrative head of the Rajya Sabha Secretariat and the custodian of the records of the House.  He works under the direction and control of the Chairman, Rajya Sabha.

Relation between the two Houses

Under article 75(3) of the Constitution, the Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to Lok Sabha which means Rajya Sabha cannot make or unmake the Government.  It can, however, exercise control over the Government and this function becomes quite prominent, particularly when the Government does not enjoy majority in Rajya Sabha.
To resolve a deadlock between the two Houses, in case of an ordinary legislation, the Constitution provides for the joint sitting of both Houses.  In fact, there have been three occasions in the past when the Houses of Parliament had met in joint sitting to resolve differences between them.  Issues in joint sitting are decided by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting. The joint sitting is held in the Central Hall of Parliament House presided over by the Speaker, Lok Sabha. However, in the case of a Money Bill, there is no provision in the Constitution for a joint sitting of both Houses as Lok Sabha clearly enjoys pre-eminence over Rajya Sabha in financial matters. As regards a Constitution amendment Bill, it has been provided in the Constitution that such a Bill has to be passed by the specific majority, as prescribed under article 368 of the Constitution, by both Houses.  There is, therefore, no provision for resolving a deadlock between the two Houses in regard to a Constitution amendment Bill.
Ministers may belong to either House of Parliament.  The Constitution does not make any distinction between the Houses in this regard. Every Minister has the right to speak and take part in the proceedings of either House but he is entitled to vote only in the House of which he is a member.
Similarly, with regard to powers, privileges and immunities of the Houses of Parliament, their members and committees thereof, the two Houses are placed absolutely on equal footing by the Constitution.
Other important matters in respect of which both Houses enjoy equal powers are election and impeachment of the President, election of the Vice-President, approving the Proclamation of Emergency, the proclamation regarding failure of constitutional machinery in States and financial emergency.  In respect of receiving reports and papers from various statutory authorities, etc., both Houses have equal powers.
It is thus clear that except in the case of collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers and certain financial matters, which fall in the domain of Lok Sabha only, both Houses enjoy equal powers.

Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

Rajya Sabha being a federal chamber enjoys certain special powers under the Constitution.  All the subjects/areas regarding legislation have been divided into three Lists - Union List, State List and concurrent List. Union and State Lists are mutually exclusive - one cannot legislate on a matter placed in the sphere of the other.  However, if Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting saying that it is “necessary or expedient in the national interest” that Parliament should make a law on a matter enumerated in the State List, Parliament becomes empowered to make a law on the subject specified in the resolution, for the whole or any part of the territory of India.  Such a resolution remains in force for a maximum period of one year but this period can be extended by one year at a time by passing a similar resolution further.
If Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting declaring that it is necessary or expedient in the national interest to create one or more All India Services common to the Union and the States, Parliament becomes empowered to create by law such services.
Under the Constitution, the President is empowered to issue Proclamations in the event of national emergency, in the event of failure of constitutional machinery in a State, or in the case of financial emergency.  Every such proclamation has to be approved by both Houses of Parliament within a stipulated period.  Under certain circumstances, however, Rajya Sabha enjoys special powers in this regard.  If a Proclamation is issued at a time when Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of Lok Sabha takes place within the period allowed for its approval, then the proclamation remains effective, if the resolution approving it is passed by Rajya Sabha within the period specified in the Constitution under articles 352, 356 and 360.

Rajya Sabha in Financial Matters

A Money Bill can be introduced only in Lok Sabha.  After it is passed by that House, it is transmitted to Rajya Sabha for its concurrence or recommendation.  The power of Rajya Sabha in respect of such a Bill is limited.   Rajya Sabha has to return such a Bill to Lok Sabha within a period of fourteen days from its receipt.  If it is not returned to Lok Sabha within that time, the Bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses at the expiration of the said period in the form in which it was passed by Lok Sabha.  Again, Rajya Sabha cannot amend a Money Bill; it can only recommend amendments and Lok Sabha may either accept or reject all or any of the recommendations made by Rajya Sabha.
Apart from a Money Bill, certain other categories of Financial Bills also cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha.  There are, however, some other types of Financial Bills on which there is no limitation on the powers of the Rajya Sabha.  These Bills may be initiated in either House and Rajya Sabha has powers to reject or amend such Financial Bills like any other Bill.  Of course, such Bills cannot be passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration thereof.
From all this, however, it does not follow that Rajya Sabha has nothing to do in matters relating to finance.  The Budget of the Government of India is laid every year before Rajya Sabha also and its members discuss it.  Though Rajya Sabha does not vote on Demands for Grants of various Ministries - a matter exclusively reserved for Lok Sabha - no money, however, can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India unless the Appropriation Bill has been passed by both the Houses.  Similarly, the Finance Bill is also brought before Rajya Sabha.  Besides, the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees that examine the annual Demands for Grants of the Ministries/Departments are joint committees having ten members from Rajya Sabha. 

Leader of the House

Apart from the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman, Leader of the House is another functionary who plays important role in the efficient and smooth conduct of the business in the House.  The Leader of the House in Rajya Sabha is normally the Prime Minister, if he is its member or any Minister who is a member of the House and is nominated by him to so function.  His primary responsibility is to maintain coordination amongst all sections of the House for a harmonious and meaningful debate in the House.  For this purpose, he remains in close contact not only with the Government but also with the Opposition, individual ministers and the Presiding Officer.  He occupies the first seat in the Chamber in first row at right the side of the Chair so that he is easily available to the Presiding Officer for consultation. Under the rules, the Leader of the House is consulted by the Chairman in regard to the arrangement of Government business in the House, allotment of days or allocation of time for discussion on the President’s Address, Private Members’ business on any day other than Friday, discussion on No Day-Yet-Named Motions, Short Duration Discussions and consideration and return of a Money Bill.  He is also consulted by the Chairman in the matter of adjournment or otherwise of the House for the day in case of death of an outstanding personality, national leader or international dignitary. In the era of coalition governments, his task has become more challenging.  He ensures that all possible and reasonable facilities are made available to the House for a meaningful discussion on any matter that is brought before it.  He works as the spokesperson of the House in expressing sense of the House and represents it on ceremonial or formal occasions. The following members have been the Leaders of the House in the Rajya Sabha:

1.Shri N. Gopalaswami AyyangarMay 1952Feb. 1953
2.Shri Charu Chandra BiswasFeb. 1953Nov. 1954
3.Shri Lal Bahadur ShastriNov. 1954March 1955
4.Shri Govind Ballabh PantMarch 1955Feb. 1961
5.Hafiz Mohammad IbrahimFeb. 1961Aug. 1963
6.Shri Yashwantrao Balwantrao ChavanAug. 1963Dec. 1963
7.Shri Jaisukhlal HathiFeb. 1964March 1964
8.Shri Mahomadali Currim ChaglaMarch 1964Nov. 1967
9.Shri Jaisukhlal HathiNov. 1967Nov. 1969
10.Shri Kodradas Kalidas ShahNov. 1969May 1971
11.Shri Uma Shankar DikshitMay 1971Dec. 1975
12.Shri Kamlapati TripathiDec. 1975March 1977
13.Shri Lal K. AdvaniMarch 1977Aug. 1979
14.Shri K.C. PantAug. 1979Jan. 1980
15.Shri Pranab MukherjeeJan. 1980July 1981
Aug. 1981Dec. 1984
16.Shri Vishwanath Pratap SinghDec. 1984April 1987
17.Shri N.D. TiwariApril 1987June 1988
18.Shri P. Shiv ShankerJuly 1988Dec. 1989
19.Shri M.S. GurupadaswamyDec. 1989Nov. 1990
20.Shri Yashwant SinhaDec. 1990June 1991
21.Shri S.B. ChavanJuly 1991April 1996
22.Shri Sikander Bakht20th May 199631st May 1996
23.Shri Inder Kumar GujralJune 1996Nov. 1996
24.Shri H.D. Deve GowdaNov. 1996April 1997
25.Shri Inder Kumar GujralApril 1997March 1998
26.Shri Sikander BakhtMarch 1998Oct. 1999
27.Shri Jaswant SinghOct. 1999May 2004
28.Dr. Manmohan Singh1st June 200418th May,2009
29th May 200926th May,2014
29.Shri Arun Jaitley2nd June,2014till date

Leader of the Opposition (LOP)

The office of the Leader of the Opposition in a legislature is of great public importance.  Its importance emanates from the central role accorded to the Opposition in a parliamentary democracy. The role of the Leader of the Opposition, in fact, is more difficult as he has to criticize, find fault and present alternative proposals/policies with no power to implement them.  He has, thus, to perform a special responsibility to Parliament and to the nation.
In  Rajya Sabha until 1969, there was no Leader of the Opposition in real sense of the term. Till then, the practice was to call the Leader of the party in Opposition having the largest number of the members as the Leader of the Opposition, without according him any formal recognition, status or privilege.  The office of Leader of the Opposition was given official recognition through the Salary and Allowances of Leaders of the Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977.  This Act defines the Leader of the Opposition in Rajya Sabha, as a member of the Council of States who is, for the time being, the Leader in that House of the party in opposition to the Government constituting the greatest numerical strength and recognized as such by the Chairman of the Council of States.  Thus, the Leader of the Opposition should satisfy three conditions, namely, (i) he should be a member of the House (ii) the Leader in Rajya Sabha of the party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength and (iii) be recognized as such by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha.    The following members have been the Leaders of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha:

1Shri Shyam Nandan MishraDecermber 1969March 1971
2Shri M. S. GurupadaswamyMarch 1971April 1972
3Shri Mamlapati Tripathi30.3.197715.2.1978
4Shri Bhola Paswan Shastri24.2.197823.3.1978
5Shri Kamlapati Tripathi23.3.19782.4.1978
6Shri Lal K. Advani21.1.19807.4.1980
7Shri P. Shiv Shanker18.12.19892.1.1991
8Shri M. S. Gurupadaswamy28.6.199121.7.1991
9Shri. S. Jaipal Reddy22.7.199129.6.1992
10Shri Sikander Bakht7.7.199210.4.1996
11Shri S. B. Chavan23.5.19961.6.1996
12Shri Sikander Bakht1.6.199619.3.1998
13Dr. Manmohan Singh21.3.199821.5.2004
14Shri Jaswant Singh3.6.20044.7.2004
15Shri. Arun Jaitley3.6.200926.5.2014
16Shri.Ghulam Nabi Azad8.6.201411.02.2015
  16.2.2015till date
Rajya Sabha has played a constructive and effective role in our polity.  Its performance in the legislative field and in influencing the Government policies has been quite significant.  Rajya Sabha has, in fact, worked in a spirit of cooperation with Lok Sabha as per the Constitutional mandate.  Rajya Sabha has prevented hasty legislation and has served as dignified chamber representing the federal principle.  As a federal chamber, it has worked for the unity and integrity of the nation and has reinforced the faith of the people in parliamentary democracy.